Almost all natural habitats in eastern Java have been cleared over time by logging interests and for agriculture and settlements to provide for a rapidly expanding, dense human population. Only tiny fragments of natural forests remain, and these are also disturbed. The Eastern Java Reforestation Project has goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through reforestation, conserving biodiversity of natural habitats, controlling soil erosion, and creating jobs to stimulate the local economy in rural areas.
Deforestation in Java has declined in the last 10 years but it’s still a major problem. From 2007 to 2010 the rate of deforestation reached 10,000 hectares. Although Java is ranked fourth after Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi in terms of deforestation levels, the decreasing forests have created a serious threat to people and protected wildlife on the island. East Java is recorded as the biggest contributor to deforestation in Java, at a rate of 438.1 hectares annually.
Forests continue to be destroyed, peat swamps are drained, and forests are logged, burned and replaced by industrial tree plantations. Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ rights are destroyed along with the forests. Introducing a large scale reforestation project in this area has a positive effect. Trees are planted, forests are restored and greenhouse gas emissions will soon become a thing of the past. The project will focus on reforestation and conservation of dipterocarpus hasseltii, duabanga moluccana, meliosma ferruginosa, palaquium javense, planchonia valida, pterospermum javanicum, and tabernaemontana.
The research, conducted by Matthew Hansen of South Dakota State University, and colleagues, found that Indonesia lost 21.35 million hectares (82,400 square miles) of forest during the period. Deforestation peaked in the 1990-2000 period (averaging 1.78 million hectares per year) before plunging around the turn of the century. Forest clearing has since crept up on a year-by-year basis, reaching 1 million hectares in 2005, but at 0.71 million hectares per year for the 2000-2005 period, remain below the 1990s rate.
The climate in eastern Java relatively more dry than the western region. Because of this, the lowland forests are predominantly moist deciduous forests, with semi-evergreen rain forest along the south coast and dry deciduous forest along the north coast. No one family dominates the forests of Java compared to Sumatra and Borneo where the dipterocarps dominates. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this eastern region of Java falls in both tropical wet and dry climate zones, although the further east you travel on the island of Java there is an increase of seasonality of precipitation.
“The news from the planet’s forests has been surprisingly good lately, at least compared with the news of a decade or two ago. Globally, according to a United Nations report that came out last year, the rate at which forests are destroyed—logged or cleared to make way for farms or mines—was nearly 20 percent lower from 2000 to 2010 than it had been in the previous decade.”, Michael Lemonick wrote in National Geographic, “Rough estimates indicate deforestation still contributes around four billion tons of planet-warming CO2 to the atmosphere each year, an eighth of the human total.”
Java is home to a number of species that survive nowhere else. The endangered species include the Javan rhino with numbers less than 60, the hawk-eagle, the gibbon, the langur, the slow loris, and the surili monkey. The island has already lost a large amount of famous species to deforestation and poaching which includes the Javan tiger that became extinct in the 1980s.
Animal poaching remains a problem in Java, even in national parks. Illegal logging is also a problem at these conservation areas due to lack of security. In Asia and the Pacific, 168 million hectares had been designated for sustainable management but only 19.5 million hectares were protected.
It is becoming harder to deny the importance of forest landscape restoration in combating climate change. A new study by the World Resources Institute shows that about 1 billion hectares of land could be restored across the globe. Rough estimates indicate that carbon sequestration through this process could eliminate 50 percent more carbon from the atmosphere than a proactive cessation of deforestation could.
The Eastern Java Reforestation Project works within the eastern region of Java over a span of 73,942 hectares. For the reforestation CDM project we have chosen the lCER model with 20 year expiry with the option for project renewal twice for a total of 60 year expiry. With a total number of 2,959,361 CERs issued, the average annual reduction of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere will be 98,645.37 during the initial lifetime of the project spanning 20 years.
Location: Eastern Java, Indonesia
Standards & Verification: Reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
CERs Issued: 2,959,361 tCO2
Reduction: 98,645.37 tCO2 reduced annually on average