The main carbon credit sellers are countries or regions and project developers. Like according to European Union Emissions Trading Systems (EUETS), the most developed cup-and-trade system under Kyoto’s flexible mechanisms and the largest seller of carbon credits within the compliance market will be the member states. Again project developers work like a set of middleman companies and estimate a company’s emissions and then act as brokers by offering opportunities to invest in carbon-reducing projects around the world.
On the other hand, buyers in the carbon credit industries are the victim countries, polluting industries, non-profits, companies, NGOs, institutional investors and individuals. They buy carbon credits from the above sellers to cover any emissions above their target level.